Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record. Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises. I should also admit that these sketches are based on the original photographs of the studies, most of the original drawings having been lost — the photographs being the only record I have of them, but which are in too poor condition to be reproduced. The illustration above, from which the three following details have been taken, is of one of the original drawings I made in the early s. The width shown is around mm of the original. Although the paper has discoloured slightly with the passage of time, the draftsmanship can still be examined.
Are you eating food sacrificed to idols?
This extensive coinage became the model for many of the crude copies produced by the Celts of Germany, France and Southern England. There is no evidence that the Celts in Ireland struck their own copies of this currency but the English and continental coins are occasionally found in Ireland. The Roman conquest of Europe extended to England but not fully to Ireland although an encampment north of Dublin was briefly established in the first century AD. Roman coins are found in an Irish context but mostly mixed with other ornaments and hack silver indicating that the coinage was not acknowledged as a medium of exchange at a set value but rather as another piece of precious metal to be assayed at every exchange.
Jun 26, · ‘Islamic Coins, and How to Read Them’. (ancient coins) When it comes number script in the modern Arabic – Turkish form, I was taught by a nine year old boy. Way back in , I helped the drive a double deck bus, Mumbai to London.
The Quran directly addresses the matter of polygyny in Chapter 4 Verse 3, ” Marry of the women that you please: But if you feel that you should not be able to deal justly, then only one or what your right hand possesses. That would be more suitable to prevent you from doing injustice. With changing economic conditions, female empowerment, and acceptance of family planning practices, polygamy seems to be severely declining as an acceptable and viable marriage practice within the Muslim world.
This day the good things are allowed to you. While these scholars use “established and approved methodologies” in order to claim new conclusions, they are still met with a considerable amount of opposition from the majority of orthodox Islamic scholars and interpreters. Young Muslim men and women are strongly encouraged to marry as soon as possible, since the family is recognized as the foundation of Islamic society.
These traits are pointed out in Quran Chapter 33 Verse 35 “For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah’s praise, for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.
A guardian who is allowed to force the bride into marriage is called wali mujbir. Forced marriage is absolutely and explicitly forbidden. Since traditional Muslim societies are generally religiously heterogeneous, it is much easier for individuals to find socially acceptable partners through traditional methods. Within these communities, families, friends, and services are used to help people find a significant other.
One more step
They are popular with divers and recreational fishermen. Bougainville Reef is the home of an unmanned lighthouse and weather station. Flora Reef is a 4.
We apologize to anyone who may be offended by the history of the founder of Islam (Muhammad) below. And we are aware of the sensitivities involved.
However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments.
Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e. K and discretionary e.
Coins and currency from this region that is so frequently in the news. For other coins of this region, also check out the following pages: It engaged in endless wars with the Roman-Byzantine Empire during most of its over years of existence.
A concept of ‘The Islamic State’ has become very widespread among Muslims and non-Muslims and although the following document is based on my analysis of an essay whose origins I have so far been unable to trace, it has simply articulated a misconception that is very widespread.
Its extensive collections were moved to the impressive building of the traditional Souq Al Majarrah to be reinterpreted and redisplayed. Why you should visit Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization The Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization holds thousands of rare and important Islamic artifacts, Here; you can admire the timeless achievements of Islamic civilization and its universality, learn about aspects of Islamic faith, science, discoveries and culture, and cherish the beauty of Islamic art.
The new Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization presents more than five thousand exquisite Islamic artifacts from all over the Islamic World, arranged according to themes and spread over seven spacious galleries and display areas. The museum comprises seven spacious galleries and display areas for its permanent collection organized as follows: It presents the five pillars of Islam, important principles of Islamic doctrine and a fascinating account of the Hajj or Islamic pilgrimage. Sophisticated three-dimensional models, audiovisuals and extensive information panels chart some of the most outstanding discoveries, inventions and theories developed by Islamic scholars in such fields as astronomy, medicine, geography, architecture, mathematics, chemistry, military technology, marine navigation and engineering.
Islamic Art Gallery 1 This gallery shows a wide range of artefacts such as pottery, metalwork, woodcarving, manuscripts and textiles, made in the Islamic world between the 1st century AH 7th century AD and the 7th century AH 13th century AD. This early period marked the expansion of Islamic civilization and culture from the Arabian peninsula to the Atlantic in the West and the borders of China in the East.
In the process, the material cultures of the ancient Hellenistic and Persian worlds were absorbed and transformed in line with the aesthetic, cultural and religious tastes of the new Islamic powers. Gradually, a new style emerged, characterized by an emphasis on Arab-Islamic scripts as well as geometric and floral decoration. Among the objects displayed are those that date back to the days following the Mongol invasion of the eastern Islamic world in the 13th century.
THE MIDDLE EAST
Bowl with Kufic Calligraphy , 10th century. Brooklyn Museum Kufic is the oldest form of the Arabic script. The style emphasizes rigid and angular strokes, which appears as a modified form of the old Nabataean script. Afterward, dots and accents were added to help readers with pronunciation, and the set of Arabic letters rose to
Las arras, or Las arras matrimoniales (English: arrhae, wedding tokens, or unity coins) are wedding paraphernalia used in Christian wedding ceremonies in Spain, Latin American countries, and the tradition is also followed, with varying names and customs, in countries and communities bearing degrees of Hispanic influence. Traditionally, in Spain and Latin America, it is made up.
This is certainly not an attack on the author or the movement from which the essay issues. Rather, I am grateful to him and to them for articulating their position so clearly, thus allowing a proper analysis. Such an analysis is important for a number of reasons: It led the late Ottomans, particularly in the time of Mahmud II and the Tanzimat, to try and make a modern state precisely as outlined in the document that is the basis for this article. In the subsequent period of the decline and disappearance of the Ottoman sultanate and then of their khalifate because of their desire to implement such a state and their embrace of technique and fatefully banking and usurious loans, and the appearance of what Shaykh Dr.
The Moguls similarly were accustomed to ruling a widely disparate population of all sorts of cultures. The Ottomans took seriously their role of being the sultans of the different millats, Jews, Christians and Muslims. The Islamic dawla was never intended to comprise only Muslims.
AFGHANISTAN COINS & BANKNOTES
Very little is known about them. They ruled the region until about AD. The Kidarites appear to have been a confederacy of warlords, many of whom issued coins. Not having had a tradition of coinage, they copied the basic designs and fabric of the coins they found in circulation without an apparent understanding of the meaning of the designs.
Both coins are all other dating islamic coins in the sylloge of early islamic silver in red album single owner collection. To years after the islamic coins mean, related articles. Now that you can determine what the numbers on coins mean, dated
Dance and theatre The performing arts have received comparatively little attention in the otherwise rich literature of the Islamic peoples. This is most probably a result of the suspicions entertained by some orthodox Muslim scholars concerning the propriety of dance and theatre. Because this applies particularly in relation to the vexing theological question of human portrayal and its connection with idolatry , the performing arts have traditionally been regarded by the faithful with more than usual caution.
Even as late as the 19th and early 20th centuries, most research on the subject, in what may loosely be called the Islamic world , was carried out by Western scholars, chiefly from European nations, and only in the 20th century did indigenous scholars start publishing significant research on the subject. There are no known references to dance or theatre in pre-Islamic Arabia, although nomad tribes were probably acquainted with dance.
Nevertheless, there has been an active tradition of folk dance in most Islamic countries, in addition to dancing as an entertainment spectacle and, particularly in Persia, as an art form. A ritual dance was instituted in the Sufi mystical order of the Mawlawiyyah Mevleviyah in Turkey; performed by dervishes members of the mystical order , it is considered to be a manifestation of mystical ecstasy rather than an entertainment or an expression of aesthetic urges.
Dervishes performing a ritual dance, Konya, Tur. Nevertheless, the theatre with live actors received support from the Ottomans in Turkey, and a live popular drama was strong in Persia, where a passion play also took root. Otherwise, the theatrical record of Islam is meagre. Moreover, few neighbouring peoples had a well-developed theatre of their own.
Hence, outside stimulus was lacking, and the Islamic disapproval of idolatry was so intense that when the shadow theatre evolved in the East, in the late Middle Ages, the puppets were regularly punched with holes to show that they were lifeless. A popular theatre, frequently including dance, evolved independently from about the 17th century in some Muslim countries.
Star and crescent
The Old Iranian calendar. Only eight month names are mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions cf. Kent, Old Persian, pp. The absence of the three other names and uncertainty about the order of the months led H. Markwart to propose different sequences cf.
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties Koson Kushan Coins In this article, a solution is proposed to offer a coherent and consistent year dating for the coins of Roman Antioch. This start with a first full year is however not the rule in ancient year dating on coins, what may generate a lot of confusion.
Muslim] who was slain in battle was sure to go to Paradise. He said, also, that the man who was the first to board a vessel had one slave over and above his share, and that when they sprang to the deck of an enemy’s ship, every sailor held a dagger in each hand and a third in his mouth; which usually struck such terror into the foe that they cried out for quarter at once. It is a hard fight. It’s extremely difficult, day after day, when you face people and say, “If Sharia law is taken to its logic this is what things are going to look like” and you come across people who say, “You got it all wrong.
I wasn’t used to arguing with vice presidents. People who are viewed as “insulting” Islam are regularly threatened with violence, including death. This happens inside and outside Islamic countries, occurring in the form of legal sanctions in the former, with efforts to institutionalize such prohibitions everywhere, so that Islam could not be criticized even, for instance, in the United States. Yet most of the genuine insults to Islam these days come from Muslims themselves. If anyone’s purpose was to discredit Islam by vicious actions done in its name, there is now abundant evidence that this is the program of many Muslims, including several internationally recognized Islamic states.
In April , the radical Islamic group in Nigeria, Boko Haram “Education is forbidden” kidnapped girls out of a government school in the north of the country. The leader of the group, Abubakar Shekau, subsequently asserted, in a videotaped message, that the girls were now slaves and would be sold as slaves. This must be cold comfort for the anti-American ideologues who want to convey the impression that slavery was invented in America and was a unique evil imposed by white people on Africans, and that one of the worst and most unforgivable things about slavery was sexual expoitation.
Archeologists discover menorah inscribed on Early Islamic period coins
Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record. Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises.
The Term “Byzantine Empire” The name Byzantine Empire is derived from the original Greek name for Constantinople; Byzantium. The name is a modern term and would have been alien to its contemporaries.
Cornelius Lentulus dating from 88BC. Relics inscribed with the Jewish symbol dating to the Umayyad dynasty during the seventheighth centuries were found at various archeological sites in Israel.. Researchers recently discovered that menorahs prominently adorned Muslim coins and vessels during the early Islamic period 1, years ago. The history of the quest for the historical Muhammad in the modern Western literature has its origins from the time c.
These studies began a long time ago and derived from an interest I have always had in mathematics in general, and geometry in particular.. A brief description of the Islamic coins from the first century of hijra.
See Article History Alternative Title: The collecting of coins is one of the oldest hobbies in the world. With the exception of China and Japan, the introduction of paper money is for the most part a recent development meaning since the 18th century. Hence, while paper money and other types of notes are collectible, the history of that form of collecting is distinct from coins and largely a modern phenomenon.
Top Obverse side of a silver denarius showing caduceus and bust of Mercury wearing winged petasos; bottom on the reverse side, Ulysses walking with staff and being greeted by his dog Argus, in a fine narrative illustration of Homer’s Odyssey. The writing on the reverse gives the name of the moneyer under whose authority the coin was struck.
These earliest Islamic coins from North Africa are modifications of those struck by the Byzantines in Carthage immediately before the Muslim conquest. The globe at the top of a column on three steps is the Muslim adaptation of the Byzantine cross on steps.
Nice chunky early Roman coin. At the time of Caesar’s assassination, Augustus was visiting Illiricum. He quickly returned, but only managed to obtain his rights as heir after a brief but bitter struggle with Mark Antony. Later they patched up their differences, and together with Lepidus, formed a Triumverate and set about wreaking vengeance on the murderers of Julius Caesar.
Together they defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, and Lucius at Perusia, and after defeating the navy of Sextus Pompey, they found there was nobody left to fight but themselves. Antony humiliated his wife Octavian’s sister by his dalliance in Egypt with Cleopatra, and this was all the excuse that Octavian needed. He declared war on his erstwhile partner, and smashed him in the naval battle of Actium.
AE As struck in Cordoba in Spain. The coin has taken some wear but has recognisable portrait.